Three-dimensional morphanalysis of the face.
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The aim of the work reported in this thesis was to determine the extent to which orthogonal two-dimensional morphanalytic (universally relatable) craniofacial imaging methods can be extended into the realm of computer-based three-dimensional imaging. New methods are presented for capturing universally relatable laser-video surface data, for inter-relating facial surface scans and for constructing probabilistic facial averages. Universally relatable surface scans are captured using the fixed relations principle com- bined with a new laser-video scanner calibration method. Inter- subject comparison of facial surface scans is achieved using inter- active feature labelling and warping methods. These methods have been extended to groups of subjects to allow the construction of three-dimensional probabilistic facial averages. The potential of universally relatable facial surface data for applications such as growth studies and patient assessment is demonstrated. In addition, new methods for scattered data interpolation, for controlling overlap in image warping and a fast, high-resolution method for simulating craniofacial surgery are described. The results demonstrate that it is not only possible to extend universally relatable imaging into three dimensions, but that the extension also enhances the established methods, providing a wide range of new applications.