Assessment of industrial energy use and carbon emissions in the textile industry
Muhammad, Agha Ali Qalbe
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This study is to design and validate an assessment procedure for energy efficiency of manufacturing buildings. I demonstrated the assessment, based on the detailed energy audit, procedure on a case-study Scottish textile factory. This is to address the recognised need for more energy studies in the small and medium enterprise (SMEs). This heterogeneous and complicated sector inherits a range of energy efficiency barriers, and therefore requires more tailored energy efficiency studies. Over four years, half-hourly (H-H) empirical electricity and gas data, lower-resolution measured data, technology nameplate ratings and operations data have been analysed. The whole-system (site-wide) and key technology assessment assesses the baseline demand, demand variations in response to variables (such as production, weather, and departmental activity), and potential for tailored energy efficiency strategies. H-H energy data, against weekday activity and shift patterns, was used to produce average daily profiles, with trends linked to production and weather impacts, in turn allowing for identification of periods of energy wastage. Based on the 24-hour peak- and off-peak periods, specific time slots were derived to numerically estimate average demands. Consequently, various demand characteristics like baseload, disaggregation and percentage contribution at activity and departmental level were calculated. Individual key technologies were studied for behaviour- and technologyrelated energy, cost, and carbon (energy savings when transformed into carbon emissions) saving estimations. The whole assessment showed promising saving opportunities, in a way that can be potentially translated to any similar manufacturing site. As a result of applying this approach to energy analysis, indicative energy, cost, and carbon savings against a base year were estimated to be 33%, 28%, and 28% respectively, with the longest payback period of five-years. Validation for the savings associated with identified measures, through physically installing/applying the measures, was not possible due to funding limitations. Measured and nameplate rating based auditing methods were compared, where possible, to assess their discrete limitations and suitability. The promising energy and carbon reduction methodology and the lessons learnt are adaptable for both textile and the other similar industries. With this transferability, a key part of the work of this methodology in the thesis provides a framework and a series of steps that allows this approach to be taken to SME industry.