Solid solution GaSe1−xSx single crystals for THz generation
Molloy, John F
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A table top source of coherent Terahertz (30-1000 µm) radiation, which is high power, narrow bandwidth, and broadly tunable, is high desired for applications in imaging, non-destructive testing (NDT), quantum, security and biomedical technologies. In spite of intensive research over many decades such a device remains elusive. Sulpher doped Gallium Selenide (GaSex−1Sx) solid solution ε-polytype crystals are an outstanding candidate for the eﬃcient generation of radiation and tunability throughout the majority of the Terahertz (THz) regime; thanks to the prodigious linear and nonlinear optical properties of the Gallium Selenide (GaSe) parent crystal. Close control of doping and the crystal growth process enable the manufacture of superior quality nonlinear crystals, where the optical properties may be engineered and the mechanical properties vastly improved. Thus overcoming many of the physical issues that, despite its exceptional optical properties, have frustrated the widespread adoption of GaSe for laser frequency down conversion to the THz regime. In order to fully exploit the potential of GaSex−1Sx crystals and successfully design eﬃcient sources for THz generation the optical properties of these crystals must be accurately determined and their transformation with doping well understood. The work in this thesis aims to accurately determine the optical properties of GaSe, Gallium Sulphide (GaS) and GaSex−1Sx crystals in the Far-Infrared and THz regimes to enable this exploitation. In the ﬁrst phase of investigation we determine the linear refractive index (n) and absorption (α) coeﬃcient for both the o and e waves in the THz regime (0.14.5 THz) using Terahertz - Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) for GaSe, and a dense set of GaSex−1Sx crystals (x = 0.05 0.11 0.22 0.29 0.44). Measurements of THz dispersion and absorption properties of GaS crystals are performed for the ﬁrst time. The transformation of the optical properties of the crystals and their phonon structure is studied. We examine the sources of inaccuracy in the THzTDs measurements of high refractive index birefringent crystals and propose a set of criteria for the selection of adequate data. The nonlinear Figure of Merit (FOM) of available high quality GaSex−1Sx crystals is found to be an order of magnitude less than that predicted in the literature, with FOM = 19.8 for GaSe, FOM = 17 for GaSex−1Sx, on the other hand estimates for double doping with Sulphur and Aluminium predict signiﬁcant enhanced of these FOM values, up to 5-10 times. In the second phase of investigation we examine the phonon band of the GaSe, GaS and GaSex−1Sx by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. For the ﬁrst time we determine the absorption coeﬃcients of the main phonon peak in the set of GaSex−1Sx crystals. The transformation of the phonon band with doping is studied. In the third phase of investigation we attempt to determine the nonlinear optical properties deff and n2 of GaSe and GaSex−1Sx in the Far Infra-Red (FIR) and THz regimes using the Maker fringe and Z-scan methods on the FELIX free electron laser.