Adaptive algorithms for history matching and uncertainty quantification
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Numerical reservoir simulation models are the basis for many decisions in regard to predicting, optimising, and improving production performance of oil and gas reservoirs. History matching is required to calibrate models to the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir, due to the existence of uncertainty in model parameters. Finally a set of history matched models are used for reservoir performance prediction and economic and risk assessment of different development scenarios. Various algorithms are employed to search and sample parameter space in history matching and uncertainty quantification problems. The algorithm choice and implementation, as done through a number of control parameters, have a significant impact on effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm and thus, the quality of results and the speed of the process. This thesis is concerned with investigation, development, and implementation of improved and adaptive algorithms for reservoir history matching and uncertainty quantification problems. A set of evolutionary algorithms are considered and applied to history matching. The shared characteristic of applied algorithms is adaptation by balancing exploration and exploitation of the search space, which can lead to improved convergence and diversity. This includes the use of estimation of distribution algorithms, which implicitly adapt their search mechanism to the characteristics of the problem. Hybridising them with genetic algorithms, multiobjective sorting algorithms, and real-coded, multi-model and multivariate Gaussian-based models can help these algorithms to adapt even more and improve their performance. Finally diversity measures are used to develop an explicit, adaptive algorithm and control the algorithm’s performance, based on the structure of the problem. Uncertainty quantification in a Bayesian framework can be carried out by resampling of the search space using Markov chain Monte-Carlo sampling algorithms. Common critiques of these are low efficiency and their need for control parameter tuning. A Metropolis-Hastings sampling algorithm with an adaptive multivariate Gaussian proposal distribution and a K-nearest neighbour approximation has been developed and applied.