|dc.description.abstract||Urban growth and the associated urbanisation has led to increased pressure on the
natural environment. Associated with climate change, the development of large urban
and industrial areas has been found to be responsible for water quality degradation and
recent flooding of watercourses. In parallel, increased pressure on land and costs
associated with developments tend to place pressure on the space allocated to amenity
in cities. This is despite the fact that amenity has been found to act positively on
residents in terms of their wellbeing by raising living standards.
Within this context, urban drainage has a key role to play by providing water quality,
water quantity and amenity benefits according to the SuDS triangle philosophy.
However, it is felt that urban drainage could potentially offer more than its current
benefits by implementing SuDS in series; a treatment train. Indeed, despite
environmental regulator guidance (CIRIA, 2007) a significant proportion of sites in
Scotland are developed with a single “end-of-pipe” pond.
Within this context, the research undertaken aimed to develop a framework which may
be used by an environmental regulator to implement treatment trains and maximise
potential water quality, water quantity and amenity benefits while preventing excessive
constraints for other stakeholders involved in SuDS implementation. In this regard, the
fears and expectations of stakeholders are investigated using structured interviews and
questionnaires. This step allowed underlining drivers and barriers to SuDS
implementation to be identified and a set of quantitative benchmarks to be developed
including cost of construction and maintenance, land take, pollutant removal,
attenuation volume and the willingness to pay for amenity benefits.
To determine how the benchmarks interrelated, two case studies were investigated in
Scotland: The Dalmarnock Road Area in Glasgow and the Houston Industrial Estate in
Livingston. Based on water quality modelling using MUSIC and hydraulic modelling
using Infoworks CS, it has been shown that the benefits, in terms of water treatment and
attenuation, should be seen in the context of increased land take and/or costs for the area
considered for virtually all the SUDS techniques.
Based on the conclusions of the investigations, a general framework was formulated to
optimise SuDS treatment trains for large developments. The framework, based on
iterative water quality and hydraulic modelling aims to identify the relationship between
drivers and barriers to SuDS implementation. The final decision regarding the extent to
which the treatment train can be implemented can then be taken knowing its
implications for all the stakeholders.||en_US