Ideal quantum protocols in the non-ideal physical world
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The development of quantum protocols from conception to experimental realizations is one of the main sources of the stimulating exchange between fundamental and experimental research characteristic to quantum information processing. In this thesis we contribute to the development of two recent quantum protocols, Universal Blind Quantum Computation (UBQC) and Quantum Digital Signatures (QDS). UBQC allows a client to delegate a quantum computation to a more powerful quantum server while keeping the input and computation private. We analyse the resilience of the privacy of UBQC under imperfections. Then, we introduce approximate blindness quantifying any compromise to privacy, and propose a protocol which enables arbitrary levels of security despite imperfections. Subsequently, we investigate the adaptability of UBQC to alternative implementations with practical advantages. QDS allow a party to send a message to other parties which cannot be forged, modified or repudiated. We analyse the security properties of a first proof-of-principle experiment of QDS, implemented in an optical system. We estimate the security failure probabilities of our system as a function of protocol parameters, under all but the most general types of attacks. Additionally, we develop new techniques for analysing transformations between symmetric sets of states, utilized not only in the security proofs of QDS but in other applications as well.