Laser-based packaging of micro-devices
MetadataShow full item record
In this PhD thesis the development of laser-based processes for packaging applications in microsystems technologies is investigated. Packaging is one of the major challenges in the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and other micro-devices. A range of bonding processes have become established in industry, however, in many or even most cases heating of the entire package to the bonding temperature is required to effect efficient and reliable bonding. The high process temperatures of up to 1100°C involved severely limit the application areas of these techniques for packaging of temperature sensitive materials. As an alternative production method, two localised heating processes using a laser were developed where also the heat is restricted to the joining area only by active cooling. Silicon to glass joining with a Benzocyclobutene adhesive layer was demonstrated which is a typical MEMS application. In this laser-based process the temperature in the centre of the device was kept at least 120°C lower than in the bonding area. For chip-level packaging shear forces as high as 290 N were achieved which is comparable and some cases even higher than results obtained using conventional bonding techniques. Furthermore, a considerable reduction of the bonding time from typically 20 minutes down to 8 s was achieved. A further development of this process to wafer-level packaging was demonstrated. For a simplified pattern of 5 samples the same quality of the seal could be achieved as for chip-level packaging. Packaging of a more densely packed pattern of 9 was also investigated. Successful sealing of all nine samples on the same wafer was demonstrated proving the feasibility of wafer-level packaging using this localised heating bonding process. The development of full hermetic glass frit packaging processes of Leadless Chip Carrier (LCC) devices in both air and vacuum is presented. In these laser-based processes the temperature in the centre of the device was kept at least 230°C below the temperature in the joining region (375°C to 440°C). Testing according to MIL-STD-883G showed that hermetic seals were achieved in high yield processes (>90%) and the packages did withstand shear forces in excess of 1 kN. Residual gas analysis has shown that a moderate vacuum of around 5 mbar was achieved inside the vacuum packaged LCC devices. A localised heating glass frit packaging process was developed without any negative effect of the thermal management on the quality of the seal.