|dc.description.abstract||work presented in this thesis encompasses an investigation into the use of
ultrafast laser inscription in the fabrication of glass based photonic devices for
integrated optical applications. Waveguide fabrication and characterisation
experiments were carried out in three categories of glass substrate.
Firstly, waveguides were inscribed in an erbium doped glass with the aim of
fabricating optical amplifiers and lasers operating in the 1.5 μm spectral region.
Low loss waveguides were fabricated in substrates with different dopant
concentrations. Fibre to fibre net gain was achieved from one substrate
composition, however it was found that ion clustering limited the amount of
achievable gain. Laser action was demonstrated by constructing an optical fibre
based cavity around the erbium doped waveguide amplifier.
Waveguides were also inscribed in bismuth doped glass with the aim of
fabricating optical amplifiers and lasers operating in the 1.3 μm spectral region.
Low loss waveguides were fabricated, however the initial composition was
incapable of providing gain. A proven substrate material was employed,
demonstrating ultra-broadband gain spanning more than 250 nm. High losses
prevented the achievement of net gain, however the broad potential of the
substrate material was highlighted.
Finally, waveguides were inscribed in a Chalcogenide glass. Strong refractive
index contrasts were observed, with a wide range of waveguiding structures
produced. Supercontinuum experiments were carried out in order to confirm the
nonlinear behaviour of the waveguides. A spectrally smooth supercontinuum
spanning 600 nm was generated, providing a potentially useful source for optical