|dc.description.abstract||A formal analysis of intonation is carried out in this
study, which involves an investigation of the intonation
system of Kuwaiti Dialect of Arabic (KDA). Following the
prosodic framework established in Britain in general and
Crystal's theory in particular, intonation is viewed here as a
unitary system: tonality, tonicity, and tone. Each system is
individually considered (chapters four, five, and six). This
study consists of six chapters.
The introductory chapter (one) is made up of four
distinct parts. After a brief discussion of the importance of
intonation in speech, part one gradually presents the progress
of knowledge in the field of intonation starting from the very
early and hence impressionistic treatments until the most
recent and hence adopted phonological/phonetic approach. The
language under investigation is phonologically and
morphologically explored in part two. Part three explicitly
states research objectives, the scope of the investigation and
the data, and the methodology upon which the study is based.
The final part of chapter one is devoted to an independent
account of Arabic intonation.
Chapter two discusses different prosodic features, such
as; loudness, duration, tempo, and pause, and assesses their
contribution to intonational contrasts. It also explores the
physical nature of pitch as the prime component of intonation.
The major functions of intonation are discussed in
chapter three, where it is concluded that intonation is multifunctional.
Chapter four is exclusively devoted to a consideration of
the grammaticality of tonality. It is concluded here, as
supported by statistical investigation, that a KDA speaker
paragraphs his flow of speech by means of intonation in such a
way as to correspond with the structure of elements of clause
rather than it being the case that "one clause is one tone
group" as suggested by Halliday (1970).
Chapter five discusses the communicative importance of
tonicity in speech. The position of tonicity is thoroughly
examined and related to the informational and grammatical
constructions of the utterance in which it occurs. It is
concluded that tonicity in KDA is unpredictable, and that the
nucleus is position-free. Tonicity is mainly determined by
the speaker's assessment of which segment (segments) to focus
as guided by the nature of his message.
Chapter six answers questions which are fundamentally
related to the physical movement of pitch which constitutes
the tone system of KDA. Functionally, pitch contour types are related to their concomitant sentence types. A bidirectional
method is applied in analysing the KDA tone system; on the one
hand, the 'kinetic' and 'static' movements of pitch are
phonetically investigated, and on the other hand, pitch
contours are phonologically grouped and functionally related
through their syntactic relevance to sentence types. It is
then concluded that: (a) KDA has five basic tones; rise, fall,
level, rise-fall, and fall-rise, and (b) the distribution of
pitch contours as related to sentence types is hardly
systematic; while the unmarked/marked distinction is clear
with an overwhelming frequency in declaratives (fall) and
interrogatives (rise), it is certainly less obvious in the
case of exclamations and totally absent in the case of