Cosets in inverse semigroups and inverse subsemigroups of finite index
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The index of a subgroup of a group counts the number of cosets of that subgroup. A subgroup of finite index often shares structural properties with the group, and the existence of a subgroup of finite index with some particular property can therefore imply useful structural information for the overgroup. Although a developed theory of cosets in inverse semigroups exists, it is defined only for closed inverse subsemigroups, and the structural correspondences between an inverse semigroup and a closed inverse subsemigroup of finte index are much weaker than in the group case. Nevertheless, many aspects of this theory remain of interest, and some of them are addressed in this thesis. We study the basic theory of cosets in inverse semigroups, including an index formula for chains of subgroups and an analogue of M. Hall’s Theorem on counting subgroups of finite index in finitely generated groups. We then look at specific examples, classifying the finite index inverse subsemigroups in polycyclic monoids and in graph inverse semigroups. Finally, we look at the connection between the properties of finite generation and having finte index: these were shown to be equivalent for free inverse monoids by Margolis and Meakin.