Investigating the formation of functional and smart materials by nanospinning and other spinning techniques
Vadodaria, Ketankumar Vijaykumar
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Functional, smart fibres and fibres with different morphologies have been produced from different materials using different spinning methods. The effect of processing parameters on different nano fibre morphologies was studied by SEM. The spinning solution properties such as viscosity, surface tension, conductivity, UV-visible spectra were studied. The fibres were characterised by DSC, FTIR, XRD, strength test. Antibacterial, hygroscopic, humectant Manuka honey (MH) functional nanofibres have been produced successfully by single needle electrospinning (SNE) using polyethylene oxide (PEO) as matrix. Electrospinning parameters such as higher feed rate, higher proportion of MH, lower applied voltage, lower needle to collector distance produced merged, thicker, flat 15% (wt/wt) MHPEO nanofibres and vice versa. 15%MHPEO fibres of diameters from 0.198μm to 0.924μm were produced using different parameters. The 50% and 65% (wt) MHPEO mats showed antibacterial property. DSC result showed reduction in melting temperature as the MH proportion increased. FTIR results showed respective peaks for MH and PEO. MHPEO nanofibres can be used for medical end use such as wound healing. Ethyl cellulose (EC) nanofibres have been successfully electrospun using different combination of toluene and ethanol (0:100, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40,100:0) as solvent by SNE. Round and elongated bead on string to smooth bead-less 15% (wt/wt)EC fibres produced as proportion of toluene increased in the solvent mixture. Thin, bead-less fibres were obtained by 60:40 (toluene: ethanol) with average fibre diameters ranging from 0.483μm to 0.631μm. EC nanofibres have been also produced by high output bubble electrospinning (BE) method. EC fibres of diameters from 0.188μm to 0.41μm were produced by BE. Comparison between effect of electorspinning parameters on fibre revealed that the fibre morphologies followed different trends in SNE and BE. The beaded structure can be used for loading drugs in advanced medical textiles and smooth bead-less fibrous mat can be used for application such as filtration. In order to develop thermochromic (smart) nanofibres by meltelectrospinning, thermochromic polypropylene fibres have been developed by meltspinning. The pure polypropylene and thermochromic. DSC and FTIR results showed separate peaks for the thermochromic effect and for the polypropylene. SEM images verified the presence of thermochromic pigments. Thermochromic filaments can be used in garment fashion, or as sensors in yarn or fabric form.