Novel sampling techniques for reservoir history matching optimisation and uncertainty quantification in flow prediction
Mohamed, Lina Mahgoub Yahya
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Modern reservoir management has an increasing focus on accurately predicting the likely range of field recoveries. A variety of assisted history matching techniques has been developed across the research community concerned with this topic. These techniques are based on obtaining multiple models that closely reproduce the historical flow behaviour of a reservoir. The set of resulted history matched models is then used to quantify uncertainty in predicting the future performance of the reservoir and providing economic evaluations for different field development strategies. The key step in this workflow is to employ algorithms that sample the parameter space in an efficient but appropriate manner. The algorithm choice has an impact on how fast a model is obtained and how well the model fits the production data. The sampling techniques that have been developed to date include, among others, gradient based methods, evolutionary algorithms, and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). This thesis has investigated and further developed the following sampling and inference techniques: Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, and Population Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The inspected techniques have the capability of navigating the parameter space and producing history matched models that can be used to quantify the uncertainty in the forecasts in a faster and more reliable way. The analysis of these techniques, compared with Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA), has shown how the different techniques affect the predicted recovery from petroleum systems and the benefits of the developed methods over the NA. The history matching problem is multi-objective in nature, with the production data possibly consisting of multiple types, coming from different wells, and collected at different times. Multiple objectives can be constructed from these data and explicitly be optimised in the multi-objective scheme. The thesis has extended the PSO to handle multi-objective history matching problems in which a number of possible conflicting objectives must be satisfied simultaneously. The benefits and efficiency of innovative multi-objective particle swarm scheme (MOPSO) are demonstrated for synthetic reservoirs. It is demonstrated that the MOPSO procedure can provide a substantial improvement in finding a diverse set of good fitting models with a fewer number of very costly forward simulations runs than the standard single objective case, depending on how the objectives are constructed. The thesis has also shown how to tackle a large number of unknown parameters through the coupling of high performance global optimisation algorithms, such as PSO, with model reduction techniques such as kernel principal component analysis (PCA), for parameterising spatially correlated random fields. The results of the PSO-PCA coupling applied to a recent SPE benchmark history matching problem have demonstrated that the approach is indeed applicable for practical problems. A comparison of PSO with the EnKF data assimilation method has been carried out and has concluded that both methods have obtained comparable results on the example case. This point reinforces the need for using a range of assisted history matching algorithms for more confidence in predictions.