Fourier optics approaches to enhanced depth-of-field applications in millimetre-wave imaging and microscopy
Lucotte, Bertrand M.
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In the first part of this thesis millimetre-wave interferometric imagers are considered for short-range applications such as concealed weapons detection. Compared to real aperture systems, synthetic aperture imagers at these wavelengths can provide improvements in terms of size, cost, depth-of-field (DoF) and imaging flexibility via digitalrefocusing. Mechanical scanning between the scene and the array is investigated to reduce the number of antennas and correlators which drive the cost of such imagers. The tradeoffs associated with this hardware reduction are assessed before to jointly optimise the array configuration and scanning motion. To that end, a novel metric is proposed to quantify the uniformity of the Fourier domain coverage of the array and is maximised with a genetic algorithm. The resulting array demonstrates clear improvements in imaging performances compared to a conventional power-law Y-shaped array. The DoF of antenna arrays, analysed via the Strehl ratio, is shown to be limited even for infinitely small antennas, with the exception of circular arrays. In the second part of this thesis increased DoF in optical systems with Wavefront Coding (WC) is studied. Images obtained with WC are shown to exhibit artifacts that limit the benefits of this technique. An image restoration procedure employing a metric of defocus is proposed to remove these artifacts and therefore extend the DoF beyond the limit of conventional WC systems. A transmission optical microscope was designed and implemented to operate with WC. After suppression of partial coherence effects, the proposed image restoration method was successfully applied and extended DoF images are presented.