Theoretical and experimental investigation of a CDI injection system operating on neat rapeseed oil - feasibility and operational studies
Bialkowski, Michal Tadeusz
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This thesis presents the work done within the PhD research project focusing on the utilisation of plant oils in Common Rail (CR) diesel engines. The work scope included fundamental experimental studies of rapeseed oil (RSO) in comparison to diesel fuel, the feasibility analysis of diesel substitution with various plant oils, the definition and implementation of modifications of a common rail injection system and future work recommendations of possible changes to the injection system. It was recognised that neat plant oils can be considered as an alternative substitute for diesel fuel offering a natural way to balance the CO2 emissions. However, due to the differences between diesel and plant oils, such as density, viscosity and surface tension, the direct application of plant oils in common rail diesel engines could cause degradation of the injection process and in turn adversely affect the diesel engine’s performance. RSO was chosen to perform the spray characterisation studies at various injection pressures and oil temperatures under conditions similar to the operation of the common rail engine. High speed camera, Phase Doppler Anemometry and Malvern laser techniques were used to study spray penetration length and cone angle of RSO in comparison to diesel. To study the internal flow inside the CR injector the acoustic emission technique was applied. It was found that for oil temperatures below 40°C the RSO viscosity, density and surface tension are higher in comparison to diesel, therefore at injection pressures around 37.50 MPa the RSO spray is not fully developed. The spray penetration and cone angle at these spray conditions exhibit significant spray deterioration. In addition to the lab experiments, KIVA code simulated RSO sprays under CR conditions. The KH-RT and RD breakup models were successfully applied to simulate the non-evaporating sprays corresponding to the experimental spray tests and finally to predict i real in-cylinder injection conditions. Numerical results showed acceptable agreement with the experimental data of RSO penetration. Based on experimental and numerical results it was concluded that elevated temperature and injection pressure could be the efficient measures to overcome operational obstacles when using RSO in the CR diesel engine. A series of modifications of low- and highpressure loops was performed and experimentally assessed throughout the engine tests. The results revealed that the modifications allowed to run the engine at the power and emission outputs very close to diesel operation. However, more fundamental changes were suggested as future work to ensure efficient and trouble-free long-term operation. It is believed that these changed should be applied to meet Euro IV and V requirements.